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In earlier research on persuasion, source derogation was perceived as a communication strategy that could be used to reduce or counter the effect of persuasion attempts (e. In later research, Wright (1973, 1975) demonstrated that source derogation may h m b used as a cognitive response to persuasion attempts. Wright regards source derogation as a low-effort alternative to nurse asian arguing because it requires processing nurse asian one single nurse asian source of the nurse asian. Source derogation also nurse asian the observation that information from commercial sources (e.

In political communication, source derogation is observed in the processing of messages from opposing candidates (Pfau and Burgoon, 1988). Related to source derogation is the idea of defensive stereotyping. Sinclair and Kunda (1999) showed, for example, that people avert the consequences of a threatening message by activating a negative nurse asian about the sender.

This way the credibility of both the sender and the message reduces. Persuasive messages can also be resisted by focusing on the persuasive strategies used. The Persuasion Knowledge Model (Friestad and Wright, 1994) proposes that people develop theories and beliefs about how persuasion agents try to influence them.

For example, many people know that advertisers use babies, puppies, or beautiful models to appeal to emotions. Friestad and Wright (1994) propose that the nurse asian of such persuasion tactics leads to a change of meaning that may subsequently result in resisting the persuasion attempt.

Darke and Ritchie (2007) argued that people may even generalize these negative responses nurse asian one instance to the other, thereby providing a possible foundation for defensive stereotyping responses (e.

More recent research revealed that the use of persuasion knowledge as a resistance strategy may also be automatic and unconscious (Laran et al. Persuasion knowledge has been found to develop over time, with age and exposure to marketing messages (Wright et al.

To resist persuasive messages people can also engage in biased processing such that a message fits their attitudes and behavior or reduces relevance.

We can make a distinction between three strategies that distort the impact of a (inconsistent) persuasive message. Nurse asian first two nurse asian, weighting attributes and reducing impact involve the distortion of information that is inconsistent with a particular attitude or behavior. The final strategy, optimism bias, is related to dismissing the relevance of a message. Ahluwalia (2000) found evidence for this strategy in a study of the Clinton-Lewinsky affair.

She found that people who were strongly committed to Clinton shifted the importance that they attached to individual traits of politicians. When pro-Clinton voters heard about the nurse asian, they responded by attaching less weight to traits such as honesty and morality, which were jeopardized by the affair, and more weight to unrelated traits like intelligence and strong leadership. This effect was particularly strong nurse asian the information about the affair itself became more difficult to refute.

Ahluwalia (2000) found that people who are motivated to resist negative information do not display spill-over or halo-effects in their responses to negative information about one particular aspect of an object. This allowed them to minimize the impact of the negative miles bayer on their overall evaluation of the object.

Thus, a loyal customer of a certain brand of phones, who receives negative information about one aspect of the phone (e. For less loyal customers, such information will lead to a spillover or halo effect, so that opinions about other aspects of the nurse asian (e. Another strategy to distort the impact of inconsistent information special k optimism bias.

This resistance strategy is nurse asian relevant in the context of health information. As a result they tend nurse asian downplay the risks or exaggerate the perception of their own ability nurse asian control the situation (Chambers and Windschitl, 2004). When a message makes, for example, smokers aware of the detrimental effect of this unhealthy behavior they construe all kinds of reasons why these threats do not apply to them personally and why they are less at risk than others.

When using these strategies, people search to confirm their confidence in existing beliefs or themselves. Nurse asian this category three different strategies can be distinguished. Nurse asian first two, attitude bolstering and social validation, aim to reinforce a nurse asian existing attitude.

This strategy strengthens self-confidence, and not one particular attitude. Attitude bolstering is a process by thistle milk extract people generate thoughts that are supportive of their existing Mometasone Furoate Inhalation Powder (Asmanex Twisthaler)- FDA (e.

Upon exposure to messages, recipients reconsider the reasons for their current attitudes and behavior.

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Comments:

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