OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA

OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA довольной! Эта фраза

Tissue storage Drugs may also accumulate in specific organs or get bound to specific tissue constituents, e. Biotransformation Metabolism of Drugs Chemical alteration of. Biotransformation is required for protection of body from toxic metabolites Active drug and its me. In addition to liver, this isoforms are expressed in intestine (responsible for first pass metabolism at this site) and kidney too Inhibition of CYP 3A4 by erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconzole, itraconazole, verapamil, diltiazem and a constituent of grape fruit juice is responsible depovit unwanted interaction with terfenadine and astemizole Rifampicin, phenytoin, carbmazepine, phenobarbital are inducers of the CYP 3A4 53.

Phase I - Reduction This reaction is conversed of oxidation and involves CYP 450 enzymes working in the opposite direction. Examples - Lasik eye surgery, levodopa, halothane and warfarin Levodopa (DOPA) Dopamine DOPA-decarboxylase This is cleavage of drug molec. Phase I - Hydrolysis This is cleavage of drug molecule by taking up of a molecule of water.

Similarly amides and polypeptides are hydrolyzed by amidase and peptidases. Hydrolysis occurs in liver, intestines, plasma and other tissues. Decyclization: is opening up of ring structure of the cyclic molecule, e. Discontinuation II metabolism Conjugation of the drug or its phase I metabolite with an endogenous substrate - polar highly ionized organic acid to be excreted in urine or OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA - high energy requirements Glucoronide conjugation - most important synthetic reaction Compounds with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid group are easily conjugated with glucoronic acid - derived from glucose Examples: Chloramphenicol, aspirin, morphine, metroniazole, bilirubin, thyroxine Drug glucuronides, excreted in bile, can be hydrolyzed in the gut OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA bacteria, producing beta-glucoronidase - liberated drug is reabsorbed and undergoes the same fate - enterohepatic recirculation (e.

Acetylation: Compounds having amino or hydrazine residues are conjugated with the help of acetyl CoA, e. Methionine and cysteine act as methyl donors. Examples: adrenaline, histamine, nicotinic acid. Factors affecting Biotransformation Factors affecting biotransformation C oncurrent use of drugs: Induction and inhibition G enetic polymorphism P ollutant exposure from environment or industry P athological status A ge One drug can inhibit metabolism o. Excretion Excretion is a transport proced.

Organs of Excretion Excretion is a transport procedure which the prototype drug (or parent drug) or other metabolic products are excreted through excretion organ or secretion organ Hydrophilic compounds can be easily excreted.

Routes of drug excretion Kidney Biliary excretion Sweat and saliva Milk Pulmonary Drugs can be excreted in 66. Energy dependent active transport. Renal Excretion Acidic urine alkaline drugs eliminated acid drugs reabsorbed Alkaline urine - acid drugs eliminated - alkaline drugs absorbed Pharmacokinetics - F, V and.

Kinetics of Elimination First Order Kinetics (exponential): Rate of elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration, CL remaining constant Constant fraction of drug is eliminated per unit time Zero Order kinetics (linear): The rate of elimination remains constant irrespective of drug concentration CL decreases with increase in concentration Alcohol, theophyline, tolbutmide etc. Kinetics of Elimination Zero Order 1st Order conc.

Time Defined as time taken for its plas. Plasma half-life 1 half-life …………. Target Level OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA Low safety margin drugs (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, Lithium, Theophylline etc. You just clipped your first slide. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Exclusive 60 day trial to the world's largest digital library. Activate your free 60 day trial. S23834Chia-Che Tsai1, Chih-Hsien Virginia, Liang-Cheng Chen1, Ya-Jen Chang1, Keng-Li Lan2, Yu-Hsien Wu1, Chin-Wei Hsu1, I-Hsiang Liu1, Chung-Li Ho1, Wan-Chi Lee1, Hsiao-Chiang Ni1, Tsui-Jung Chang1, Gann Ting3, Te-Wei Lee11Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, 2Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 3National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCBackground: Nanoliposomes are designed as carriers capable of packaging drugs through OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA targeting tumor sites by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects.

Pharmacokinetics study was described by a noncompartmental model.

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