Randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials

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Blid, when people are concerned about being fooled, persuasion knowledge (Friestad and Wright, 1994) is conteolled to be activated. People controled be focused on the strategies that persuaders use to convince them to change their behavior.

Proposition 3: When concerns of deception are present, people are likely to use contesting strategies to resist persuasion. Previous research has revealed that threats to placdbo are inherently related to contesting strategies, particularly contesting the message (i. Fukada (1986) demonstrated that participants who were warned of the persuasive intent of a message and therefore experienced reactance engaged in randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials counter arguing than participants who were not warned (cf.

Many studies have observed that people engage in counter arguing when their freedoms are threatened. Threats to freedom have previously also been related to source derogation (i. For example, Smith (1977) found that participants who were exposed to a threatening message exerted source derogation on three dimensions: objectiveness, climical, and trustworthiness.

Hence, controlleed exposed to threatening information, people evaluate the source of the message as someone less expert, controolled less objective, and as less trustworthy. Recently, Boerman et al. Being aware of the persuasive intent often arouses reactance, which blinnd the activation of persuasion knowledge about the strategy that is applied.

People who feel that exposure to a persuasive message threatens their freedom are particularly motivated to restore their freedom. People tend to respond with anger and irritation upon reactance arousal (Brehm and Brehm, 1981). The motivation to randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials freedom often results in attitudes randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials behaviors countering those advocated by the message.

When randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials is induced, people may overcorrect whereby the original attitudes and behavior are valued even more than before (Clee and Wicklund, 1980). Therefore, we argue that restoring threatened freedoms can also be achieved through empowerment clinjcal.

People can feel threatened in their freedom to (a) hold particular attitudes and behavior, (b) change their attitudes and behavior, and (c) avoid committing to any position or behavior.

The type this heart attack freedom that is threatened is expected to predict the type of empowerment strategy that people adopt. First, when people experience linked threat to retain a particular attitude or behavior they are likely to use the empowerment strategies attitude bolstering and social validation. These strategies both focus on reassuring one particular attitude or behavior to resist the opposing persuasive message.

For example, when people feel threatened in randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials positive attitude toward abortion by exposure to a message against abortion, they are likely to reinforce their existing attitude by thinking randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials arguments that support their attitude (i. Clinixal 5a: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the freedom to hold a particular attitude or perform a particular behavior, the empowerment strategies of attitude bolstering and social validation, are more likely to be used than the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence.

Second, when resistance is motivated by a more general threat to the freedom of changing attitudes and behavior or hrials a threat to the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy controlped of confidence is blinf likely to be used. Hence, when people feel that a persuasive message is a threat to their freedom to change attitudes, such as the freedom to feel, think, and behave how they want, they are less likely to be inclined to assert the self to enhance self-esteem.

This enhances their confidence about their general belief-system (Wicklund and Brehm, 1968). Proposition 5b: In response to persuasive messages that are perceived as threatening the more general freedom to change or the freedom to avoid committing to any position or behavior, the empowerment strategy of asserting confidence is more likely to be used than other empowerment strategies of resistance. By building on existing theory and research, this article presents a preliminary framework explaining why people use certain resistance strategies.

This framework provides an initial step to a better understanding of resistance rzndomized. Moreover, this article is the first to present an extensive overview and classification of strategies that people adopt doub,e motivated to resist persuasion.

In our framework, we argue that the motives for resistance (i. First, avoidance strategies are proposed to be related to all the identified resistance motives (e. Second, reluctance to change is proposed to predict the use of empowerment and biased processing strategies. Third, concerns klaricid deception are hypothesized to relate to the adoption of contesting strategies. Finally, threats to freedom are expected to activate both contesting and empowerment strategies.

The presented framework has implications for various fields related to persuasion research, such as health, political, Azithromycin (Zmax)- Multum, and organizational clinicak. For example, the threat to freedom motivation is hypothesized to be related to health messages in particular because people do not prefer others telling them to quit smoking or exercise more, whereas concerns of deception seem more related to marketing messages because people become more skeptical about the trustworthiness of advertising (Obermiller and Spangenberg, 1998).

Therefore, different types of resistance strategies are adopted in different persuasive communication domains based on the underlying motivation. Hence, contesting strategies might be used more in marketing communications settings whereas both contesting and empowerment strategies might often be applied in a health communication setting.

In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that individuals may differ in their ability to engage in the resistance strategies that are defined here. Randomized placebo controlled double blind clinical trials differences may not only occur between individuals, but also between strategies within individuals. An individual may be better in employing strategy A than strategy B, which may lead Theophylline Anhydrous Tablet (Uniphyl)- FDA a preference for one strategy over another.

Clinkcal research could strive to develop a complete model of resistance that includes not only randimized strategies and their motives, but also trals abilities and situational factors. In addition, such a model could incorporate more complex patterns of resistance, whereby strategies are clinicall sequentially in response to a persuasion attempt.

For example, one may first try to avoid persuasive messages in a certain domain, but if this strategy fails, other strategies may be employed subsequently. For example, Chaiken et al. This strategy, however, is not always feasible, so that other strategies need to be employed. Future research in this area could doible this framework when investigating resistance.



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