Open in a separate window. When women do discuss fertility plans with providers, the extent to which safer conception methods are included is unclear [ 27 ]. Three structured one-hour sessions are led by study-trained CHC staff and delivered to individuals or couples in a one-on-one format. Contraception practices items assess whether the pregnancy was planned or unplanned, whether a provider was consulted prior to pregnancy, current use of family planning and intentions to engage in family planning in the future. Similar findings have been reported in Uganda, where it was reported that indifference at the leadership level resulted in a lack of actions for addressing gender-related challenges against PMTCT and staff were not held accountable for their inactions NCG Uganda For instance, men aged 15 – 29 years were more likely to get tested than those 40 – 54 years of age.
Control condition staff received an identical one-day training session on the use of ACASI technology and a four-hour orientation to the protocol to enable them to conduct time-equivalent group sessions comprised of childhood disease prevention and adult health hazard videotapes for example measles, diarrhea management and immunizations. The area where clients sit waiting for services, has no enough space for couples to sit Head of Unit, Health Facility B. Documents which are gender sensitive GRAS level 3 have content which indicates awareness of the impact of gender norms, roles, and relations, but no remedial actions are developed. However, those women whose male partners cannot or refuse to attend with them, we as the health care providers do not do much. The data quality was observed during questionnaire designing, which included widely used standard questions that had been pre-tested in PMTCT studies. Random effects will be used to account for the multilevel data structure of repeated observations within persons, persons nested within cohorts and cohorts nested within clinics.
It implies provision of a range of services aiming at stopping transmission of HIV from the mother to the child.
Development of the item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Per the standard of care, male partners will be encouraged, but not required, to undergo HCT. Assessment of leadership processes and practices revealed little attention to the integration of gender in the delivery PMTCT services.
Likewise, those who dissertztion that legal enforcement is necessary were less likely to be tested than their counterparts AOR 0.
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We do not have care programs at family level Medical officer in-charge, Health Facility B. The matched clinics were then assigned to the opposite condition.
This woreda is one of 18 in the Bale zone of the Oromia region, South-East Ethiopia, situated km south-east of the capital, Addis Ababa. The quantitative data were collected from respondents, with a Random effects will be used to account for the multilevel data structure of repeated observations within persons, persons nested within cohorts and cohorts nested within clinics.
The area where clients sit waiting for services, has no enough space for couples to sit Head of Unit, Health Facility B.
Beyond that, it would give helpful insight on adherence measurement to triangulate self-reported adherence with pill count and plasma drug levels in future research. Men focus on HIV testing, alcohol and drug use and communication.
In addition, permission to collect data was sought from the Regional and District level government authorities. In this section, the document discusses the impact that gender has on differential vulnerability to Oj between men and women.
If such considerations are not made, implementation and evaluation activities will also have very limited consideration of gender. New Engl J Med ; This suggests that dissedtation implementation of an invitation letter is a viable approach to attract male partners to use the service and contributes to the success of the programme.
The limited coverage of the solutions to gender-related barriers might explain why there is a lack of access to and use of PMTCT services in Tanzania.
Addressing health systems issues, particularly stock-outs of HIV test kits, drugs and delivery dissertaiton, and improving patient-provider relationships, may have the greatest immediate impact on PMTCT service use in this setting.
Moreover, such documents have statements whose implications privilege men over women or vice versaoften leading to one sex enjoying more rights or opportunities than the other. Each session also addresses reducing risk behavior related to unintended pregnancy, acquisition of sexually transmitted infections STI and prevention of STI and HIV transmission to partners and use of dual methods of protection consistent use of condoms along with another contraceptive method. For instance, Engender Health has been implementing the Men as Partners MAP dissedtation in South Africa and Kenya with a focus on promoting discussion idssertation gender norms and power dynamics that have a bearing on gender based violence Bott et al.
Improving the usage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in rural Tanzania
Similarly, health facility leader responses indicate perspectives and practices that pay little attention to the holistic integration of gender in the delivery PMTCT services. However, gender was only discussed in a few sections, and in many cases not in the key sections. This was the case only for the National Training Refresher Package: Additionally, since the study involved conducting interviews, another limitation was recall bias.
Although gender mainstreaming has been long recognized as a strategy for addressing gender inequalities and associated negative health outcomes; its implementation has remained a challenge, even in the area of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV PMTCT.
Although men and women attending VCT together create the need for staff to introduce more gender sensitive attitudes and approaches to HIV, respondents stated that staff training on how to handle non-clinical gender related challenges—including among counsellors—is virtually non-existent. However, sometimes, from the child-rights point of view, an appropriate counselling service is necessary. Thus, although gender features as one of the guiding principles in the introductory chapter s of key PMTCT policy documents in Tanzania, gender mainstreaming is low as document goals, objectives, and strategies do not incorporate gender considerations.
Likewise, in Kenya, assessment indicated that there were no specific strategies for addressing stigma and discrimination among HIV infected postpartum women NACC Participants are encouraged to share experiences with disclosure and problem-solving, and are guided in applying cognitive restructuring skills in discussing safer conception negotiation, including family planning post-partum.
Increasing male participation in antenatal care has been proposed in order to enhance PMTCT uptake [ 16 ], however, while men are traditionally the sexual and reproductive decision-makers in South Africa, the impact of male involvement in PMTCT remains unclear and untested [ 17 ].
National Library of Medicine Dissertztion system.
It was further asserted that the set-up of VCT room s ensures privacy and confidentiality for the couples. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar.